Tuvalu archipelago comprises nine small islands scattered over 500,000km of the western Pacific Ocean between 5° to 10° South and 176° to 180° West. Six out of nine of these islands are atoll islands (with ponding lagoons) namely Nanumea, Nui, Vaitupu, Nukufetau, Funafuti, and Nukulaelae. The remaining three islands, Nanumaga, Niutao, and Niulakita are raised limestone reef islands. Funafuti Atoll is the capital of Tuvalu and consists of two main islands – Fongafale and Amatuku. All the islands are less than five meters above sea level, with the biggest island, Vaitupu, having a land area of just over 524 hectares. The total land area is approximately 26km with an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of 719,174km. The islands are made up of infertile sandy or gravel coralline soil, which limits agricultural development and food security in most places. The island is less than 75m wide, which provides limited space for development. Tuvalu is the world’s second lowest-lying country 2 and sea level rise poses a fundamental risk to its very existence. Tuvalu’s geography makes it susceptible to the impacts of climate change, given that the highest elevation is less than 5m above sea level and may vary across the nine atolls depending on local socio-economic and cultural context. Storm surges, king tides, and floods are common occurrences and have intensified due to changes in weather patterns and sea-level rise (estimated at about 5 millimeters/year and estimated to be up to 0.97 meters in next 100 years).
Sea level rise has generated particular concern since all human settlements and development of Tuvalu is effectively coastal and is thereby vulnerable to coastal inundation and erosion. Furthermore, sustainable supply of freshwater is at risk due to changes in rainfall patterns, lack
of rainwater storage capacity as well as potential salinization of ground water due to high sea level rise. Tuvalu’s vulnerability to the impacts of climate change characterizes it as a ‘sinking’ nation. Tuvalu has high levels of exposure to both local and abstract climate change stressors
* Increase energy efficiency in Funafuti by 30%.
* Tuvalu’s indicative quantified economy-wide target to reduce total GHG emissions from the entire energy sector to 60% below 2010 levels by 2030.
* Zero carbon development pathway by 2050
Tuvalu’s vulnerability to the impacts of climate change characterizes it as a ‘sinking’ nation. Tuvalu has high levels of exposure to both local and abstract climate change stressors. Considering Tuvalu’s geo-physical setting with socio-economic contexts, Tuvalu faces
development challenges with its small population size, remoteness, and vulnerability to external shocks such as the COVID-19 pandemic and accelerating economic hardship by natural disasters such as the Category 3 tropical cyclone which hit Tuvalu in January 2020.
- Tuvalu commits to the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the electricity (power) sector by 100%, i.e., almost zero emissions by 2030.
- Increase energy efficiency in Funafuti by 30%.
- Tuvalu’s indicative quantified economy-wide target to reduce total GHG emissions from the entire energy sector to 60% below 2010 levels by 2030.
- Develop a Zero carbon development pathway by 2050
Tuvalu's NAPA outlines urgent and immediate adaptation needs and specific adaptation projects:
- Coastal: increase resilience of coastal areas and settlements to climate change.
- Agriculture: increasing subsistence pit grown pulaka productivity through introduction of a salt tolerant pulaka species.
- Water: adaptation to frequent water shortages through increasing household water capacity, water collection accessories, and water conservation techniques.
- Health: protecting community health through control of vector borne/climate sensitive diseases and promotion of community access to quality potable water.
- Fisheries: strengthening of community-based conservation programmes on highly vulnerable near-shore marine ecosystems.
- Disaster: strengthening community disaster preparedness and response potential.
- Fisheries: adaptation to near-shore coastal shellfish fisheries resources and coral reef ecosystem productivity.
- Renewable Energy
- Energy Efficiency
Activity Implementation Year
The Regional Pacific NDC Hub is servicing the following activities in Tuvalu:
Tuvalu's NDC Journey
The Updated Nationally Determined Contribution for Tuvalu was submitted in 2022
Contact details in-country team
Ms. Pepetua Latasi
Regional Pacific NDC Hub Focal Point
Department of Climate Change
Ministry of Climate Change and Disaster