Vanuatu (Republic of)

The Republic of Vanuatu is an island nation located in the Western Pacific Ocean. The country is an archipelago of over 80 islands stretching 1,300 kilometres from North to South. Vanuatu’s terrain is mostly mountainous, with narrow coastal plains where larger islands are characterised by rugged volcanic peaks and tropical rainforests. Vanuatu is located in a seismically and volcanically active region and has high exposure to geologic hazards, including volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis and landslides.

Vanuatu is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change among the other Pacific island nations. The effects of climate change on agriculture production, fisheries, human health, tourism and well-being will have the consequences of decreasing national income while increasing key social and infrastructure costs. Climate change may affect all areas of life for Ni-Vanuatu people and impact women, men and young people in different ways. Vanuatu has positioned itself as a regional leader in the fields of Climate Change (CC) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and has been widely applauded for its initiative to establish a National Advisory Board for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Reduction (NAB) as a means of improving coordination and governance around the two issues. Vanuatu’s implementation of the UNFCCC has progressed exponentially in recent years as government sector agencies become more organized and civil society, academic, the private sector, development partners and regional agencies have stepped up their activities in Vanuatu.

NDC Target

Vanuatu has a sector specific target of transitioning to close to 100% renewable energy in the electricity sector by 2030. Goal is to reduce Business As Usual (BAU) emissions in the electricity sub-sector by 100% and in the energy sector as a whole by 30%.

Conditional (100.00%)

The proposed interventions would need substantial external funding of around US$180 million to proceed at the time frame needed. In addition, substantial technology transfer would be required including institutional support and training.

Unconditional (0.00%)


Vanuatu submitted their Intended nationally determined contributions (INDC) to the UNFCCC Secretariat on the 29th of September 2015. No further revisions were undertaken and the same document was endorsed and submitted as the First nationally determined contributions on 21st September 2016.

This target would replace nearly all fossil fuel requirements for electricity generation in the country and be consistent with the National Energy Road Map (NERM) target of 65% renewable energy by 2020. This contribution would reduce emissions in the energy sector by 72Gg by 2030.

The achievement of the emission reduction target specified above will be through both unconditional and conditional means based on available and additional external financing being made available to Vanuatu.

Vanuatu has successfully submitted it's enhanced NDC in 2021 to the UNFCCC. 

Target Sector


Mainly electricity generation sub-sector but with ancillary mitigation possible in forestry, agriculture, transport and energy efficiency sector wide.

The key planned mitigation interventions include: Doubling of the wind installed capacity to 5.5 MW by 2025 Installing 10 MW grid connected solar PV by 2025 · Commissioning the proposed first stage 4 MW Geothermal plant by 2025 · Adding 10 MW grid connected solar PV by 2030 · Commissioning the second stage 4 MW Geothermal plant by 2030 · Substituting and/or replacement of fossil fuels with coconut oil based electricity generation

First of all, there are basic interventions, which are recommended to be implemented in any case:

  • Interventions under implementation or preparation: project under implementation such as VREP II or the Talise Hydro Power Project bring good contributions towards the target and should be finalised as planned. Focus should be on implementations under preparation to secure funding and push for implementation.
  • Coconut for Fuel Strategy: this is the key element in providing a sizeable contribution to achieving the NDC target and is the first implementation step to be carried out.
  • Revision of the Electricity Supply Act: this is a key step for stronger involvement of the private sector and should allow attracting private capital for the investment into renewable energy projects. Batteries: a total of 37 MWh of battery storage capacity are necessary to secure a well-functioning grid, where overproduction can be stored for later consumption.

In addition to these basic interventions, 2 options are suggested for achieving the NDC target.  

Option 1 includes the installation of 7.6 MW solar PV and 5.1 MW wind, which together can contribute around 30% to the target. The majority of the contribution towards the target (57%) will come from the use of coconut oil. Total costs of Option 1 are USD 73.3 m (excluding costs for the Sarakata hydro power project as they haven’t been determined yet). It is assumed that a pricing arrangement for coconut oil can be found, which is not leading to ongoing operation costs, the costs for carrying out the Coconut for Fuel Strategy are included.

Option 2 includes the installation of 7.6 MW solar PV, which is seen as the renewable energy source with lowest generation costs. The main contribution in Option 2 will come from geothermal (36%), which requires successful drilling and considerable investment for the implementation. The availability of geothermal allows reducing the input of wind energy and it suggested that only half of the additional capacity (2.6 MW) is installed. The remaining gap will be covered by coconut oil and a total of around 6 million litres will be required to achieve the target. Total costs of Option 2 are USD 66.5 m.


The focus of Vanuatu’s NDC is on mitigation. However, the Vanuatu National Adaptation Programme of Action has identified 11 top adaptation priorities through a national consultation process. These adaptation priorities were further refined to include 5 top priorities for support and implementation. The 5 NAPA priorities include: 1. Agriculture and food security 2. Sustainable tourism development 3. Community based marine resource management 4. Sustainable forest management

Target Year
Activity Implementation Year

Current Activity

The Climate Action Enhancement Package (CAEP), funded by German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) will assist Vanuatu in (i) Enhancing Vanuatu’s NDC, including by raising ambition, as part of the Paris Agreement’s NDC update process and (ii) fast track implementation of NDC’s, including by providing in-country technical expertise and capacity building.

Still under the CAEP Support, Vanuatu intends to update its NDC and enhance the integrated MRV Tool to cover other potential mitigation sectors to increase ambition and action by carrying out a detailed assessment of land transport, waste, forestry, agriculture and other potential high impact sectors that can contribute to low carbon development.

CAEP support will also assist in scaling-up the Lelepa rural electrification initiative including the use of a new Power Blox technology (swarm technology). 

The Regional Pacific NDC Hub has so far also assisted with organising virtual trainings on the use of digital tools, and NDC preparation – applying the Katowice guidance on ICTU and adaptation.

Vanuatu Review & Update Climate Change & Disaster Risk Resilience Policy (Adaptation and DRR planning)



NDC enhancement to include quantifiable adaptation targets



CAEP: Identify the challenges of implementing the NDC activities, including gender and update NDC 2021



Biogas Installation in rural educational institutions



NDC Investment Strategy (including project pipeline)



Implementation of National Vulnerability Assessment Framework (NVAF).



Vanuatu Focal Point

Vanuatu contributes less in-terms of its GHG emissions; but adversely impacted by Climate Change. Rather, we are taking actions through ambitious targets reflected on our NDC’s to achieve close to 100% Renewable Energy by 2030. Also we are urging the global community to work together to reduce the Climate change causes and impacts for small island states like Vanuatu.

- Mr. Mike Waiwai, Director Department of Climate Change, Vanuatu

Vanuatu's NDC Journey

The INDC for Vanuatu was submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat in 2015.

The Enhanced Nationally Determined Contributions was submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat in 2016

The Enhanced Nationally Determined Contribution for Vanuatu is expected to be submitted to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Secretariat at the end of 2020.

Contact details in-country team

Mr Mike Waiwai
Director, Department of Climate Change
[email protected]
Tel: +678 22160

Department of Climate Change
Ministry of Climate Change & Adaptation
VAOO59 Port Vila, Vanuatu


Mr Nelson Kalo
Mitigation Officer, Department of Climate Change

[email protected]
Tel: +678 22160

Department of Climate Change
Ministry of Climate Change & Adaptation
VAOO59 Port Vila, Vanuatu

The Regional Pacific NDC Hub is funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development of Germany, the Foreign and Commonwealth Office of United Kingdom, the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Australia and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of New Zealand.